Reports & Research

Waste, Residue, and By‐Product Definitions for the California Low Carbon Fuel Standard


As local industry regulations are enacted and changed, ICF works directly with our clients to provide the information they need to stay in compliance. Our advisory services are based on thorough, best-in-class research from the local level on issues with global impact.

In this report prepared for the International Council on Clean Transportation (ICCT), ICF developed recommendations for rules and guidelines to categorize biofuel feedstocks (as either primary products, by-products, residuals or wastes) and how direct and indirect emissions upstream of fuel production should be estimated within a lifecycle analysis (LCA) for the Low Carbon Fuel Standard (LCFS). ICF performed an extremely thorough literature search of existing LCA models, regulations, and published reports. The report includes four case studies of biofuel feedstocks utilizing the recommended rules and guidelines for categorization: inedible tallow, inedible corn oil, palm fatty acid distillate (PFAD), and used cooking oil.